Adjective | What is an Adjective?
An Adjective is a type of part of speech that tells us something about a noun or a pronoun. It’s a part of speech known as a describing word.
1. Sebastian is brave.
2. She is brave.
In the above two sentences, there is the same adjective ‘brave’. But in the first sentence, ‘brave’ describes a noun, ‘Sebastian’ and in the second one, brave is describing a pronoun ‘she’.
Types of Adjectives
There are eight various types of Adjectives. They are the followings –
1. Demonstrative Adjective: This type of Adjectives specifies the objects or persons we are talking about.
Examples – (i) These chocolates are very tasty.
(ii) I don’t tolerate such a man.
2. Descriptive Adjective: Indicate the quality or kind of a thing or a person.
Examples – (i) I have a big teddy bear.
(ii) You are a good boy.
3. Distributive Adjective: This type of Adjective refers to each object or person.
Examples – (i) Every child should respect their parents.
(ii) Neither side wanted to solve the matter.
4. Interrogative Adjective: These types of adjectives are used to ask any question.
Examples – (i) Which student has done the work?
(ii) What is your name?
5. Numeral Adjective: Tells the number or amount of persons or things. It is also used to indicate the order of a person or a thing.
Example – (i) There are two books in the bag.
(ii) I am the first girl in the school.
6. Possessive Adjective: Indicates someone’s right to something.
Example – (i) This is my pen.
(ii) Everyone loves their country.
7. Proper Adjective: This type of Adjectives points out the country, place and origin of a noun.
Examples – (i) I just love Indian food.
(ii) The Chinese products are very penny.
8. Quantitative Adjective: It shows the quantity of a thing.
Examples – (i) I need some books.
(ii) Please give me a little water.
Positions of Adjectives
There are two types of Adjectives according to their positions –
(i) Attributive Adjective
(ii) Predicative Adjective
(i) Attributive Adjective: When an adjective is USED BEFORE A NOUN, it is called Attributive Adjective.
Example – It’s a large house.
In this sentence, ‘house’ is a noun and the adjective large is placed before it. So, here large is an Attributive Adjective.
(ii) Predicative Adjective: When an adjective is USED AFTER A VERB, it is called Predictive Adjective.
Examples – The house is large.
In this sentence, large is a Predicative Adjective as it is used after the verb ‘is’.
You can see similar more examples –
|Attributive Adjectives||Predicative Adjectives|
|1. A beautiful girl.||1`. The girl is beautiful.|
|2. The bright star.||2. The star is bright.|
|3. This is a comfortable dress.||3. The dress is comfortable.|
|4. The poor man.||4. The man is poor|
|5. This is a white cat||5. The cat is white|
Degrees or Comparisons of Adjectives
There are 3 types of adjectives based on qualitative differences –
(a) Positive Adjective: This degree is used to denote the equality of faults or qualities between any two persons or objects.
The formation of this type of degree is – Sub. + v. + as + adj. + as + n. or pro.n.
Example – She is as intelligent as her brother.
I am as lazy as Malay.
(b) Comparative Adjective: This degree is used to mean one is better or less by comparing the qualities between two objects or persons.
The formation of this type of degree is – Sub. + v. + adj. – r/er + than n. or pro.n.
Or, Sub. + v. + more/less + adj. + than + n. or pro.n.
Example – The tiger is stronger than the deer.
Arpita is more active than Animesh.
© Superlative Adjective: It is used to mean the greatest by comparing two or more things or persons.
The formation of this type of degree is – Sub. + v. + the + adj. -st/est + of or in + n. or pro.n.
Or, Sub + v. + the + most or least + adj. +of or in + n. or pro.n.
Example – Mrinmay is the most active boy in the class.
The lion is the strongest of all animals.
Some Rules to Change The Degree of Adjectives
Here are some rules about how to change the form of adjectives to Comparative and Superlative –
1. If there is ‘y’ at the end of the adjective and there is a consonant before it then ‘i’ is placed in the place of ‘y’, then ‘er’ (in Comparative Degree) and ‘est’ (in Superlative Degree) have to be added.
2. When the adjectives are of one syllable, ‘er’ (in Comparative Degree) and ‘est’ (in Superlative Degree) are used after them.
3. If there is ‘e’ at the end of any adjective then ‘r’ and ‘st’ are added.
4. When there is a consonant at the end of an adjective and a vowel just before it, the consonant is doubled and ‘er’ (in Comparative) and ‘est’ (in Superlative) are added.
5. In the case of all adjectives with multiple syllables, the Comparatives and Superlatives are formed by adding more/less and most/least respectively.
|Careful||More carefulLess careful||Most carefulLeast careful|
|Beautiful||More beautifulLess beautiful||Most beautifulLeast beautiful|
|Important||More importantLess important||Most importantLeast important|
|Dutiful||More dutifulLess dutiful||Most dutifulLeast dutiful|
|Difficult||More difficult||Most difficult|
- There are many adjectives that do not have a Comparative and Superlative form in a Positive form. So, they are called Irregular Comparison.
Do you know there are some Nouns that are used as adjectives?
Here are some examples of such kind of adjectives – Gold jewellery, English teacher, City life, Summer vacation, College-girl, Country people
There are two types of Participle Adjectives – 1. Present Participle Adjectives
2. Past Participle Adjectives.
1. Present Participle Adjectives: When verb-ing words act or are used as adjectives, they are called Present Participle Adjectives.
Examples – This is a running train.
But remember all verb-ing words cannot be used as Present Participle Adjectives.
These types of adjectives are used in the following two ways :
|This type of adjective is used before a NOUN. |
E.g. – Dipika is a rising singer.
He saved a drowning child.
|This type of adjective is used after a NOUN. |
E.g. – I saw some children playing in the field.
I saw the thief running.
2. Past Participle Adjectives: When verb-ed/-en/-t words are used as adjectives, they are called Past Participle Adjectives.
Examples – There was a broken vas on the table.
These types of adjectives are also used in the following two ways:
|These adjectives are placed before NOUNS.|
E.g. – The boys dug the soil for hidden treasure.
The beggar lives in a deserted house.
|These adjectives are placed after NOUNS.|
E.g – I saw him worried.
I found my purse stolen by someone.