Parts of Speech
When some words present a clear and complete meaning, they are called a sentence. Every word has an important part in a sentence. Each word in a sentence is called part of speech. By learning the parts of speech we can use the words correctly to form a sentence.
Different Types of Parts of Speech
We can divide the parts of speech in a sentence into eight different classes according to their functions and characteristics.
The noun is a word that describes the name of a person, an animal, a place or a thing. A noun is a naming word.
⇰ Sayani had seen a snake.
⇰ Many monuments are found in India.
⇰ Mother Teresa is not alive today.
⇰ Taj Mahal was made by Shahjahan.
⇰ Ramchandra Guha is a famous historian.
The underlined words in the sentence are called nouns.
A pronoun is used in the place of a noun to avoid the use of the noun repeatedly in a sentence.
⇰ Shovan is a student. He is intelligent.
In the first sentence ‘Shoven’ is a noun. In the second sentence ‘He’ is the pronoun that is used to indicate Shovan.
Similarly, More examples:
⇰ Nandita is my sister. She is eight years old.
⇰ Payal and Koel are friends. They read in the same class.
We use an adjective to describe a noun or pronoun. An adjective is a describing word.
⇰ There are many historical places in Murshidabad.
⇰ Kishore Kumar was an excellent actor.
⇰ Smoking causes harmful diseases.
⇰ Ankita is a pretty girl
⇰ Leela had a gold chain
⇰ He always seems angry
The underlined words are called adjectives they qualify the nouns or pronouns(place, Kishore Kumar, diseases, Ankita, chain, he).
Without a verb, no English sentence can be completed. A verb is a doing word that we used to express any action (physical and mental) like; come, go, see, speak, do, cry, run etc.
⇰ I was travelling on a train.
⇰ Jesus had love for us.
⇰ Sathi wrote a letter to his brother.
⇰ The bus conductor was as hot as the day.
⇰ The lady was very poor.
The underlined words in the sentences are called verbs
An adverb is used to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
⇰ Rakesh runs fast.
[Here, ‘fast’ is an adverb which modifies the verb ‘run’]
⇰ The girl was very intelligent.
[Here, ‘very’ is an adverb which modifies the adjective ‘intelligent’]
⇰ We reached too early
[ Here, ‘too’ is an adverb which modifies the adverb ‘early’]
The words that we used before nouns or pronouns to suggest their relationship with some other words in a sentence are called prepositions. The words like – to, on, in, for, from, by, with, before, after, across, over, below, through, etc. are examples of prepositions.
We use conjunctions to connect or join words, phrases, clauses or sentences. A conjunction is a joining word or linker.
⇰ The lady wants bread and butter.
[ ‘and’ joints two words – ‘bread’, ‘butter’]
⇰ Shyan fell down on this spot or at this place
[ ‘or’ joints two phrases]
⇰ Winter is cold but the summer is hot.
[ ‘but’ joins two sentences]
Note: ‘But’ presents a difference. ‘And’ presents a similarity.
An interjection is a word that we use at the beginning of a sentence to express a sudden or strong feeling or emotions like; sorrow, pity, joy, disgust etc.
⇰ Hurrah! I have cracked the IIT
⇰ Fie! You stole the jewellery
⇰ Alas! My grandfather is no more
⇰ Hush! My sister is asleep.
In the sentences ‘Hurrah’ expresses a strong feeling of joy, ‘Fie’ expresses a strong feeling of shame, and ‘Alas’ expresses a strong feeling of sorrow. So, Hurrah’, ‘Fie’, ‘Alas’, are interjections.
Note: An exclamation mark (!) must be put after an Interjection.