# What are Roman Numerals? Facts, Charts 1 to 2000 & Use of Roman Numerals

## What are Roman Numerals?

The numbers we use every day (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 etc.) are known as “Arabic numerals.” However, we occasionally use a different technique for writing numbers with English alphabets called “Roman numerals”. In this system, combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet are used to represent numbers.

The seven letters of the alphabet – I, V, X, L, C, D and M are used to represent numbers in this system.

See which numbers are meant by these letters in Roman Numerals:

• I = 1
• V=5
• X=10
• L=50
• C=100
• D=500
• M=1000

Note: In this numerical system, there is no sign for zero.

When writing Roman numerals, we can use either capital letters (upper-case) or small letters (lower-case). For example, the following integers are just the same: XII = xii = 12

Letters are often arranged in decreasing sequence of value, for example, XVI = 16 (10+5+1). To enhance the value of a letter, it can be repeated one or two times, for example, XX = 20, XXX = 30. But we can’t repeat a letter three times, so XXXX is not utilised for the number 40. In this case, XL is regarded as 40.

Don’t be confused by the term “repeat,” which literally means “do it again”.  We get XX by writing X and then repeating it. We get XXX by repeating X two times. So, be sure about it that in XXXX, X is repeated three times not four. Okay?

The notation IV can be read as  ‘one less than five ‘and IX can be interpreted as ‘one less than ten’ although there is a history of representing 4 as IIII on a roman numeral clock.

### Origin of the system

The root of this system is intimately connected to the ancient city-state of Rome and the Empire that it established. The beginnings of the system, however, are unknown due to the lack of surviving samples, and there are numerous competing ideas, all of which are mainly conjectural.

### Modern Use

Long after the Roman Empire fell apart, Roman numerals were still used. Roman numerals began to be phased out in favour of Arabic numbers in the 14th century; however, this transition was slow, and Roman numerals are still used in some applications today. This method is still used today for page numbers, clock faces, and movie release dates, among other things.

Look at the examples of uses of this system at present time:

• The definition of the process is on IX/xii page.
• 2021 in roman numeral?

2021=1000+1000+10+10+1+1=MMXXII

• A clock having Roman Numerals